The pyramid of denial
There are many kinds of denial, and some of them suck. I don't totally agree with the order chosen in this pyramid, but I suppose it's still a good basis for thinking:
- negative affect: getting angry, irritated, or upset. I wouldn't place it at the lowest level because at least it doesn't involve being an ass to your interlocutor
- source derogation: insulting the source, dismissing their expertise or trustworthiness, or otherwise rejecting their validity
- selective exposure: leaving the situation or tuning out the persuasive message
- assertions of confidence: "nothing/noone could change my position"
- social validation: "Einstein said that too so I'm right and you're wrong"
- message distortion: selectively processing or understanding a persuasive message in a way that favors one's original attitude. That should be at the bottom along with selective exposure, IMO, those attitudes are just the best way to turn an interesting discussion into a stupid dialogue of the deaf.
- attitude bolstering: presenting arguments for one's position without responding to the arguments presented
- counter-arguing: actually responding to arguments. Congrats for reaching the top!